Child Labour in Human Rights Perspective (Case Study of Child Scavengers of Urban Areas of Lahore)
In child labour, the children involved in it have social, economic and educational disadvantages. ‘Scavenging through children’ is that kind of child labour which is undertaken in filthy and deplorable conditions. In this practice, parents or guardians use their children for economic gains. These children are innocent, vulnerable, and dependent on their elders. They are without any voice or any association for their basic rights. They are generally underfed, underpaid, overworked and exposed to hazardous environment and extreme weather conditions which are constant threats to their life, health and growth.
They are also victims of social dislike and hate and are suspected by the people. Consequently they become an excluded community with frustrations and inferiority complex. They do not have opportunities of schooling, playing and recreational activities which are imperative for their proper growth and up-bringing, therefore, they are likely to have a bleak future. As a matter of fact, a sizeable population of children is involved in this profession, particularly in cities. In the profession of scavenging through children, various violations of their rights take place. None of the government departments has taken seriously to redress this practice.
A conceptual framework of the Rights of Children is designed from the United Nations’ Charter, Declaration of Human Rights, Covenants of Human Rights and Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) to assess the violations of rights of the child scavengers. Although Pakistan is a signatory of the CRC and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention 182, yet a big number of children are being mistreated, exploited and abused particularly in scavenging profession.
An empirical study is undertaken to have an insight of the phenomenon of scavenging through children. For that matter, a sample of 200 child scavengers are selected. They are interviewed to document the various aspects of this practice like causes, conditions, exploitations, treatments, professional health, miseries, etc. However, descriptive research method is used for the problem under study i.e., child scavengers of urban areas of Lahore.
Evaluation of Kitchen Waste Composting and its Comparison Wth Compost Prepared from Municipal Solid
Solid waste management is a serious issue in big urban areas due to large amounts of waste being generated. For example, in Lahore 5000 tons of solid waste is generated daily. Out of which only 70% is collected and disposed in unmonitored dumping sites, which is a cause of severe environmental impacts. Huge amount of money is involved in the collection and disposal of this solid waste. Present study is an effort to find a technique for reducing the amount of solid waste being collected and dumped. For this purpose kitchen waste composting was studied. Windrow composting was carried out from the kitchen waste in three different windrows with varying amounts of kitchen waste. One out of the three windrows was supplemented with sewage and animal manure to observe change in quality and reduction in composting period. The prepared composts and a compost sample from existing Municipal Solid Waste Composting facility, Lahore Compost (PVT) Ltd, were analyzed in the laboratory for quality. The results of the study demonstrated that the compost prepared from kitchen waste was better in terms of organic content (44.25% as compared to 26.24%) and C/N ratio (10.67:1 as compared to 6.77:1). Moreover, it was also concluded that the composting period is reduced from 3 months to 1 month by the use of sewage. If composting of kitchen waste is carried out in backyards of homes then the amount of solid waste entering the system in Lahore can be reduced by 30%, which is a substantial reduction.
Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency, Lahore Pakistan-Solid Waste Composting
In 2006, the City of Lahore, Pakistan, issued a concession to a private developer, Lahore Compost (Pvt) Limited (LCL), to process and compost up to a 1,000 ton per day (TPD) of municipal solid waste (MSW). The project brings composting technology to a country where there are no landfills and common practice is open dumping of MSW. Composting in a scientifically designed plant improves the local environment by reducing health hazards created by the solid waste collected in open dumpsites, and also sequesters the emission of methane (a major greenhouse gas) generated during anaerobic decomposition of biodegradable matter. It lengthens the usable life of the dumping site in a city where land is running out and is at a premium due to the increasing rate of urbanization. Compost produced from this project will also be a source of revenue and will be used as a soil conditioner/fertilizer for improving the quality of soil in and around Lahore. The project is expected to lead to an estimated emissions reduction of 4.5 million tCO2e during 2008-2026. Further, the project offers a promising model for substantially reducing waste disposed of in landfills; reducing environmental and health hazards; recycling valuable materials; providing compost for agriculture; providing employment opportunities; and supporting private sector investment and participation in the provision of such municipal services.
Improving Secondary Collection of Solid Waste: The Experience of performance Based System in Lahore
Like cities of many developing countries, solid waste management in Lahore is a serious challenge and constrained by economic, institutional and operational factors. The Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) of the City District Government Lahore (CDGL) initiated a performance based system (PBS) of secondary collection of waste with the view to improve the service and make effective use of the available resources. The paper provides an assessment of the new system using data regarding various aspects of waste collection service under the PBS and discussions with concerned officials. The analysis of data shows that there are signs of improvement both in terms of quantity of waste now lifted and brought to dumping site as well as the cost incurred on this service. The paper concludes that there is scope for replicating this system all across the city but certain aspects need to be given due consideration to ensure its smooth operation in the long run
Punjab Solid Waste Management Reform
The present document is the draft final report within the project “Punjab Solid Waste Management Reform” (PPIAF No. TA- PT-P099114-GAPT-TF023613). The report was submitted to the World Bank and the Urban Unit, Government of Punjab on August 22, 2007 in order to get their final comments.
The present report is the result of desk research, of three consultative workshops with the important stakeholder groups, several field visits, and many interviews with stakeholders in the nine project cities of Punjab Province. Furthermore, comments and input provided by representatives of the Urban Unit as well as by the World Bank on previous deliverables have been taken into account.
Sanitation and Water for All: Pakistan Sector Status Report 2012
Urban solid waste characterization forms the basis of solid waste management. Lahore city solid waste characterization process was completed as February-2011 and July-2011 for the year 2011.
For Lahore city, it is required to follow up solid waste content at least with annual periods during the stage of establishing integrated waste management. In this scope, the solid waste characterization for 2012 summer season was completed. Detailed trainings were delivered for solid waste characterization in 2011, and the process was followed up as observed in 2012 summer study.
In the study, zoning was carried out considering the social welfare level and corporate structures. Different samples were collected in order to compare the existing traditional system with compressed door-to-door collection system which was put into practice but doesn’t cover entire Lahore yet.
The results obtained in the study are in parallel with the previous studies conducted. Obtaining consistent results can be achieved with a well-planned methodology. We observe a waste which is rich in terms of biodegradable waste content but poor in recyclable material. The hazardous waste which is not desired among the urban wastes in terms of waste management is mostly from hospital and at a significant level.
Review and Analysis of current Solid Waste Management Situation in Urban Areas of Pakistan
Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the major reasons of environmental degradation in Pakistan. Inappropriate management of solid waste causes hazards to dwellers. Recent literature on current SWM practices in five major cities of Pakistan has been reviewed, and an effort has been made to provide a comprehensive review on the total amount of municipal solid waste generated, storage, collection, physical composition, transfer, processing and disposal of SW. There is an overall fragmented approach to the SWM in Pakistan. Inadequate waste collection system exists as it is collected only 51-69% of the total waste generated in a few major cities. Municipal collection of household waste is quite irregular and limited to high income areas. Generally, inadequate disposal service and no weighing facilities are installed at most of the disposal sites. There is a poor management of hazardous waste and under the current disposal practice no proper method is being employed. The review of the legal framework indicates that there is a need for detailed and clear regulations dealing specifically with solid waste. In addition, promotion of public awareness, legislation, financial and economic calculations, strengthen institutional capacity and regulations enforcement and establishment of a proper sanitary landfill are considered to be principal remedial measures to ensure sound environmental maintenance.
Solid Waste Management in Lahore-Past And Present
After a long period during which there was little effort to develop the capacity of municipal staff working in solid waste management (SWM) in Lahore, Pakistan, the last eight years have seen new approaches and many attempts to improve services by developing capacity.
This paper reviews that changes that have taken place in waste collection services in Lahore, and examines measures that have been implemented to improve the capacity of municipal staff and private sector service providers. It also suggests reasons for the successes and failures of past policies, and refers to current measures that aim to bring improvements.
The Impact of Municipal Solid Waste Management Treatment Methods On Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lahor
The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology.
DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO2 equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH4) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO2 equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO2 equivalents of –33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO2 equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.
The 3 Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
This document narrates the importance of 3Rs, their use, their advantages and related number of links which can provide more information about 3Rs for managing solid waste of the city.
Services and Assest Management Agreement for Solid Waste Management Services in Lahore
This document describes the management and services agreement for solid waste management in Lahore. It has clarity of roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders, budgetary provisions and other necessary information needs for solid waste management in city.
Revamping Solid Waste Management (SWM) System of Faisalabad
Through technical assistance of the Urban Unit & financial support of Rs. 150m, City District Government Faisalabad started an Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) Project. The project has made tremendous achievements in managing solid waste. It has introduced door to door waste collection, efficient waste transportation system, improved storage capacity, properly managed existing dump site , merit based selection and built capacity of the staff. Last but not the least, the project has successfully mobilized local community to become partners in SWM and take ownership of this crucial initiative.
Integrating Recycling and Disposal System for Solid Waste Management in Karachi
This study was a pre-feasibility for integrating solid waste management with the scavenging and recycling activities in Karachi. The concept was accepted by the Sindh Governor’s Task Force for the Improvement of Municipal Services. The Task Force requested the World Bank-Water and Sanitation Programme to support a pre-feasibility and hence this study. The concept that has been researched consists of developing scavenging and recycling at the landfill sites and preventing scavenging and recycling within the city. It was felt that if scavenging and recycling can be shifted to the landfill site then there will be no impediment to the waste reaching the landfill. For determining how feasible this would be, dialogues and workshops were conducted with DMC and KMC staff, representatives of the recycling industry, scavengers, private sector solid waste management companies, dealers, middlemen and itinerant waste dealers.
Material Flow Analysis and Recycling of Newspaper in Allama Iqbal Town Lahore, Pakistan
The study deals with the extent of the recycling of Newspaper in Allama Iqbal Town (AIT) with a population of 117250. AIT was divided in the three categories as per its socioeconomic structure. Category A, high income group, category B, middle income group, category C, Low income group with the total of 13658 number of houses in all three groups. Two pathways involved in newspaper recycling were identified, one is the newspaper supply to the readers of AIT and the second one is the used newspaper cycle from the readers of AIT to the recycling units. Data on newspaper recycling was gathered from newspaper agencies, hawkers, and newspaper supply agents, residents of low, middle- and high-income groups, scavengers, junkshops and recycling unit. Sampling was carried in summer and winter to get the comparative data. Total of 560 samples were collected, thirty five from each category and total of 80 houses. Average newspaper supply to AIT was 1644tons/year where as average newspaper read in AIT was 1083.6 ton /year. Average Newspapers reused in AIT was 21.6 tons/year where as average newspaper recycled in AIT was 105.1tons/year. Total earning of the buyback centers and house person was 35028 Rs/day for 451.5 Kg/day and 3833Rs/day for 3010 Kg/day. Based on these finding, an effective environmental and economical program of newspaper recycling has been recommended as a Single Stream and Efficient Newspaper Recycling Program in which both formal and informal sectors are mutually benefited and justified.
Revisiting Solid Waste Management (SWM): a Case Study of Pakistan
Pakistan is the second largest country in South Asia, inhabiting a population of approximately 180 million and ranking 6th largest one in the world. The question rises here whether the tools of Solid Waste Management (SWM) are sufficient for the large population and whether the management of solid waste in the country is up to the recognized standards and whether can it sustain a 6th largest population of the world? The impact of certain actions of a nation causes worldwide effects, no matter these are economic or environmental. The environmental effects are global, and every one sharing world’s resources have to face the consequences of their actions which disturb the natural environment, SWM being a neglected issue, lacks proper attention, hence, it causes health and pollution problems. Effort has been made in this review paper to focus on resulting impacts of SWM in the country including, increase in Carbon Foot-Printing, dumping and its consequential issues such as some waste takes much time to decay, ground water pollution and its hazardous impact on the environment. Common methods used for dumping include the landfills, size reduction and screening. Industrial recycling has also been introduced, though at very thin level.The author, in this regard, has reviewed analytically the initiatives taken by the federal and provincial governments and their role. Privatization of SWM and to declare it as an industry can be an actionable option to mitigate the harmful impact of SWM due to mishandling of waste. Most importantly, illiteracy is another factor in mismanagement of SWM. This should be encountered on war footings as illiteracy is root cause of many other nationwide problems